Benedetta Berti: The surprising way groups like ISIS stay in power



For the past decade, I've been studying non-state armed groups: armed organizations like terrorists, insurgents or militias. I document what these groups do when they're not shooting. My goal is to better understand these violent actors and to study ways to encourage transition from violent engagement to nonviolent confrontation. I work in the field, in the policy world and in the library.





Understanding non-state armed groups is key to solving most ongoing conflict, because war has changed. It used to be a contest between states. No longer. It is now a conflict between states and non-state actors. For example, of the 216 peace agreements signed between 1975 and 2011, 196 of them were between a state and a non-state actor. So we need to understand these groups; we need to either engage them or defeat them in any conflict resolution process that has to be successful.





So how do we do that? We need to know what makes these organizations tick. We know a lot about how they fight, why they fight, but no one looks at what they're doing when they're not fighting. Yet, armed struggle and unarmed politics are related. It is all part of the same organization. We cannot understand these groups, let alone defeat them, if we don't have the full picture.





And armed groups today are complex organizations. Take the Lebanese Hezbollah, known for its violent confrontation against Israel. But since its creation in the early 1980s, Hezbollah has also set up a political party, a social-service network, and a military apparatus. Similarly, the Palestinian Hamas, known for its suicide attacks against Israel, also runs the Gaza Strip since 2007. So these groups do way more than just shoot. They multi-task. They set up complex communication machines -- radio stations, TV channels, Internet websites and social media strategies. And up here, you have the ISIS magazine, printed in English and published to recruit. Armed groups also invest in complex fund-raising -- not looting, but setting up profitable businesses; for example, construction companies. Now, these activities are keys. They allow these groups to increase their strength, increase their funds, to better recruit and to build their brand.







Armed groups also do something else: they build stronger bonds with the population by investing in social services. They build schools, they run hospitals, they set up vocational-training programs or micro-loan programs. Hezbollah offers all of these services and more. Armed groups also seek to win the population over by offering something that the state is not providing: safety and security. The initial rise of the Taliban in war-torn Afghanistan, or even the beginning of the ascent of ISIS, can be understood also by looking at these groups' efforts to provide security. Now, unfortunately, in these cases, the provision of security came at an unbearably high price for the population. But in general, providing social services fills a gap, a governance gap left by the government, and allows these groups to increase their strength and their power. For example, the 2006 electoral victory of the Palestinian Hamas cannot be understood without acknowledging the group's social work.




Now, this is a really complex picture, yet in the West, when we look at armed groups, we only think of the violent side. But that's not enough to understand these groups' strength, strategy or long-term vision. These groups are hybrid. They rise because they fill a gap left by the government, and they emerge to be both armed and political, engage in violent struggle and provide governance.





And the more these organizations are complex and sophisticated, the less we can think of them as the opposite of a state. Now, what do you call a group like Hezbollah? They run part of a territory, they administer all their functions, they pick up the garbage, they run the sewage system. Is this a state? Is it a rebel group? Or maybe something else, something different and new? And what about ISIS? The lines are blurred. We live in a world of states, non-states, and in-between, and the more states are weak, like in the Middle East today, the more non-state actors step in and fill that gap. This matters for governments, because to counter these groups, they will have to invest more in non-military tools. Filling that governance gap has to be at the center of any sustainable approach. This also matters very much for peacemaking and peacebuilding. If we better understand armed groups, we will better know what incentives to offer to encourage the transition from violence to nonviolence.





So in this new contest between states and non-states, military power can win some battles, but it will not give us peace nor stability. To achieve these objectives, what we need is a long-term investment in filling that security gap, in filling that governance gap that allowed these groups to thrive in the first place.





Thank you.

transition from violent engagement to nonviolent confrontation

armed groups today are complex organizations

a social-service network, and a military apparatus

you have the ISIS magazine, printed in English and published to recruit

They allow these groups to increase their strength

they build stronger bonds with the population by investing in social services

Armed groups also seek to win the population over by offering something that the state is not providing

non-state group : 비국가 단체

insurgent : 반란을 일으킨 사람

militias : 민병대

document : 기록하다

transition from A to B : A에서 B로 이행하다.

engagement : 약속, 업무, 교전

confrontation : 대치 대립

peace agreement : 평화 협정

defeat : 패배시키다

resolution : 결의안

conflict resolution : 갈등해소

tick : 싫은 녀석

struggle : 투쟁

politics : 정치

politic : 신중한, 현명한

apparatus : 기구 , 에퍼얼레레스

loot : 훔치다

governance : 통치, 관리

sophisticated : 세련된, 정교한, 복잡한

territory : 지역, 영토

sewage : 하수, 오물

sewage system : 하수처리장

rebel : 반역자

blurred : 흐릿한, 희미한

sustainable : 지속가능한

incentives : 장려책

thrive : 번창하다

TED 강의 :

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이 앱은 너게에 가상의 안전지킴이를 제공해 줄것이다. 너가 집에 가는 동안에....

최고의 앱의 아이디어들의 몇몇것들은 확실해야 한다. 그리고 명확하게 Companion 앱은 이 경우에 해당한다.

이 앱은 친구들과 가족들을 가상적으로 동반하게 만드는 것을 쉽게 만든다. 너가 밤에 덜 위험하다고 느끼는 곳까지 동반할 수 있게 한다.

그리고 너가 두려워 하기 전에 기억하려고 노력해라 얼마나 많은 친구들이 너가 밤길을 걷는 동안에 전화할 것인지 그들이 위험한 상황에서 걷는 동안에 안전하다는 것을 종종 확실하게 하기 위해 

 이 앱은 제거했다 시간이 오래걸리는 것은 가능한 긴장된 상황에는 짧은 대화와 너의 심심의 안정을위해 헌신을 위해 디자인된 것으로 가득하다.

Companion 은 사용할 수 있다 아무하고나 너와의 접촉 그리고 그러한 접촉을 하는 사람들은 이 앱을 설치할 필요가 없다. 간단하게 너의 시작지점과 목표지점을 이 앱에 기입하라 그리고 소프트웨어는 너의 진전을 추적할 것이다. 주기적으로 "괜찮나요?"라고 물어볼 것이다. 만약 너가 반응을 하지 않으면 15초이내로 초록색 Yes 버튼을 누르면서. 이 앱은 자동적으로 설정된 동반자들에게 알려줄 것이다.

하지만 앱의 방어의 특성은 거기서 끝나지 않는다. 만약 탐지가 되면 너의 뛰기 시작하는 거나 이어폰 잭이 휴대폰으로 부터 분리가 되는 상황이, 이 앱은 15초 카운트다운을 시작할 것이다. 너의 친구들과 가족들에게 접촉하기 전에. 

대학생의 경우에 이 앱은 또한 캠퍼스 주위의 지역을 보고하는 기능이 있다 너가 안전하다고 생각하는 지역에 대해. 너가 "I feel nervous"라는 옵션을 선택함으로써. Companion를 만든 사람은 약속한다 너의 학교의 관리자에게 접촉을 할것이라고.    

당연히 이 앱은 너가 용기를 내게 디자인이 되지는 않았다. 대략 새벽 3시에 터벅터벅 걸어 가는 것을. 하지만 적어도 지금 너는 또다른 믿을 수 없게 너의 마음을 놓일 수 있는 방법을 하지고 있다 너가 너스스로 그런 상황을 발경했을 때.

현재, 이 앱은 무료로 iOS 와 Android에서 이용가능하다.


This app gives you a virtual security guard to walk you home

Some of the best app ideas are also the most obvious, and that's definitely the case with the Companion app.

The app makes it easy to recruit friends and family to virtually accompany you on your way home at night when you're in areas where you feel less than safe.

And before you poo-poo the app as playing on our fears, try to remember just how many friends you've known who have called you up while walking the streets at night, often in a bid to make sure someone knows that they're safe while traveling in risky circumstances.

This app eliminates the need for a lengthy, possibly nervous conversation packed with small talk and instead offers a dedicated tool designed to increase your feeling of safety.

Companion can be used with anyone in your contacts and those contacts don't need to be users of the app. Simply input your starting point and destination in the app and the software will track your progess, periodically asking "Are you ok?" if you don't respond within 15 seconds, by pressing a large green "Yes" button,  the app will automatically notify you designated companion. 

But the app's protective features don't end there. If it detects that you've begun running, or that your headphones have been taken out of the smartphone's headphone jack, the app will start its 15-second countdown before contacting your friend or family member.

For university students, the app also comes with the ability to report areas around campus that you feel could be safer by allowing you to select an "I feel nervous" option when in that area. The makers of Companion promise to contact your school's officials upon receiving such reports.

Of course, the app isn't designed to encourage you to start traipsing around sketchy neighborhoods at 3 a.m. by yourself, but at least now you have another, incredibly easy way to put your mind at ease when you find yourself in such situations.

Currently, the app is available as a free download for both iOS and Android.

Have something to add to this story? Share it in the comments.

출처 :


1. 동반자, 동행

2. (마음 맞는) 친구

3. 동지


1. (눈으로 보거나 이해하기에) 분명한

2. (누가 생각해도) 확실한

3. 너무 빤한

in a bid -노력의 일환으로, …하기 위해.

circumstances  - 사정, 상황

lengthy  -  (시간・치수가) 너무 긴, 장황한, 지루한

conversation  -  대화; 회화

packed with  -  …로 가득한.


1. 동반자, 동행

2. (마음 맞는) 친구

3. 동지


1. 진전; (목표 달성・완성을 향한) 진척   

2. (앞으로・무엇을 향해) 감  

3. 진전을 보이다...

comes with - ~이 딸려 있다.

traipse   -  터벅터벅 걷다

sketchy - 대략적인

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스타크래프트를 이제 브라우저에서 실행할 수 있다. 정말 놀랍다!!

나는 오리지널 스타크래프트를 좋아한다. 나는 많은 시간을 플레이하는데 써왔다. 그리고 1999년 나의 첫번째로 멀티플레이와 연결해주는 게임이었다. 

지금 누군가가 가까스로 스타크래프트와 브라우져를 최초로 연결하려고 한다 HTMML5 덕분에

GitHub의 첫번째 성인 'Ryuta'만 알려진 이 유저는 저장소에 업로드를  했다. 너는 실행할 수 있다. 잠깐동안

이것은 설치를 필요로 하지 않느다. 그리고 기본적인 유닛 컨트롤을 보여준다 전투에 들어가면서 그리고 심지어 게임으로부터 풀 애니메이션이다.

이것은 아직 종합적이지 않다. 데모버전의 레벨이다. 하지만 'Rutya' 는 도입부분에 설명 부분에 심지어 게임과 똑같은 치트를 포함한다고 썻다

몇몇의 특이점과 거친 부분에도 불구하고 이것은 정말 인상이 깊다. 시간이 새월이 흘러도 변치않은 게임의 재창조와 웹의 힘을 보여주는 면에서. 나는 시간이 흘럿다 내가 기억하는 것보다 하지만 이것은 큰 재미이다. 그리고 나를 전체 게임플레이의 향수를 불러일으킨다.

HTML5의 게임버전의 유일한 문제점은 이것은 오리지널의 자산과 오디오를 허가없이 사용하는 것이다. Blizzard는 아마 이것을 문제삼을 것 같다. 블리자드는  과거에 자신들의 브랜드에 대한 문제를 삼은 적이 있다.

너가 다운로드 받을 필요 없는 호스팅 버전은 여기서 이용가능하다 하지만 오래동안 지속될 것이라고 기대하지마라. - github 주소


이것을 다운받아서 사용해 보았는데 역시 기사 말대로 생각보다 미흡한 부분이 있다. 일단은 단축키가 먹히지 않는 것과 공격시 적을 지정할 수 없는 일이 발생한다. 그리고 마지막으로 안타까운 것은 부대지정이 되지 않는다. 스타크래프트는 컨트롤의 재미로 하는 게임인데 컨트롤이 아직 미흡해서 아쉬웠다.

하지만 누군가가 이렇게 HTML5로 스타크래프트를 웹에서 돌리려고 한다는 것 자체가 정말 대단하고 인상이 깊었다. 그래도 아직은 설치해서 게임을 하자.


Starcraft now works in the browser and it’s amazing

I love the original Starcraft. It’s hands-down the game I’ve spent the most time playing and was my first introduction to dial-up multiplayer back in 1999.


Now, someone’s managed to port Starcraft into the browser for the first time thanks to HTML5.


A user on GitHub, known only by the first name of ‘Ryuta’ uploaded a repository containing the bits, which you can have running on your own in a few seconds.


It requires no installation and shows some basic demos of controlling units, entering combat and even the full animations from the game.


It’s not comprehensive yet the levels are just demos but Rutya wrote in the instructions that demonstration even contains the same cheat codes from the original Starcraft.


Despite some oddities and rough corners, it’s an impressive recreation of a timeless game that shows off the power of the Web. I’m rustier than I remembered, but it was a fun blast from the past and made me nostalgic to play the full game again.


The only problem with this HTML5 version of the game is that it uses the original assets and audio without permission, which Blizzard is likely to have a problem with. The company has taken down other projects that used their brands in the past.


A hosted version, so you don’t need to download it, is available here but don’t expect it to last for long.


HTML5 Starcraft [GitHub] :

출처 :

hands-down - 쉬운, 용이한

combat - 전투,싸움

comprehensive - 종합적인

demonstration - 입증, 데모, 설명

timeless - 세월이 흘로도 변치 않은

show somebody/something off

1. ~을 자랑하다

2. 돋보이게 하다

rusty - 녹이 슨, 예전 같지 않은

nostalgic - 향수(鄕愁)의, 향수를 불러 일으키는.

take something down  

1. (구조물을 해체하여) 치우다

2. (바지 등을) 끌어내리다

3. ~을 적다[기록하다]

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