파이썬에는 list 자료형에 contains가 있는지 알고 썼는데 없더군요..


이런 오류만 뜨더라구요.





그래서 인터넷 확인에 확인해본 결과


if myitem in list: 이런형식으로 사용한답니다.


예를들어 



이런 식으로 코딩하시면 된답니다. ^^


그리고 단순하게 만약 없을 경우를 원하시면


조건 앞에 not을 붙이시면 됩니다.





Posted by 구레이더


페이스북과 구글이 같이 협업을 한다. 모바일 웹 사용자들이 Push 알림을 크롬을 통해 받기위하여


개발자들이 모바일 웹사이트들을 싫어하는 가장 큰 이유는 모바일 웹사이트는 네이티브 앱으로의 재유입을 도와주는 푸쉬 알림의 서비스가 부족했기 때문이다. 그것은 페이스북의 문제이기도 하다. 이것은 m.facebook.com의 많은유저들에게도 보인다. 그래서 페이스북은 오늘 구글과 새로운 모바일 앱 alert 표준을 만든다고 발표했다. m.facebook.com 모바일 웹사이트 사용자들은 선택할 수 있다 크롬을 통해서 push 알림을 받는 것을.


구글은 첫번째로 크롬을 통해서 push를 해주는 third-parth의 개발은 4월에 끝났고 eBay나 Vice News 같은 몇몇 파트너들과 표준으로의 실행을 약속했다고 알렸다. 그리고 지금 페이스북은 push 알림을 출시했다. 모바일 크롬 사용자들 m.facebook.com 들은 Chrome push 알림을 켤 것인지를 물어볼 것이다. Facebook의 상품 매니저 - 브라우저 파스터쉽의- Jonathan McKay는 나에게 이미 이렇게 말해주었다. "우리들은 방문자들의 증가를 보았다 push알림을 런칭함으로써" 


Chrome을 통한 push는 "Facebook에 많은 시간을 보내지 않는 사람들에게 사이트로의 재유입에 좋은 수준이다."라고 McKay가 설명했다. "push는 Facebook에 많은 시간을보내지 않는 사람들로부터 나온 최고의 컨텐츠이다 그래서 그들은 선행으로 서비스를 갈 필요가 없다." 만약 그들에게 친구가 결혼을 했거나 태그를 당했는 경우라면 푸쉬알람을 통해서 Facebook으로 재유입을 의미했다. push alert가 없었다면 모바일 웹사용자들은 전혀 몰랐을 것이다. 페이스북에 어떤일이 일어났는지. 


소셜 네트워킹 사용자( 데이터에 대한 걱적이 없는 )는 높은 기능의 Facebook app을 선호하는 반면에 이것은 많은데이터를 소비하지 않고 앱의 업데이트를 요구하지도 않기에 모바일 웹사이트는 인기있어질 것이다. 

 


구글은 희망하기를 모바일 웹 push 알림의 정착을 다른 브라우저 마켓에도 나타나는 것을 희망한다 "현재 이것은 안정적으로 전파되고 있다. 우리와 Opera에 그리고 FireFox 24에도 11월에 정착될 것이다."라고 구글의 push서비스과 관련된 Owen Campbell-Moore이 말했다. UC 브라우저 UC웹의 중국 회사 또한 이것이 마켓에 나타나게될 것들을 지원햇다.


 한 도전이 알림에 대한 것을 증가시켰다. 페이스북 모바일 사이트의 가입과 함께 (Facebook List, Opera 그리고 다른 푸쉬를 받는 방법들) 사용자들은 alert에 노출될 수 있다 그들이 이미 보았던. Nate Schloss, 페이스북 소프트웨어 엔지니어, 는 말한다 이것은 우리를 짜증나게 할수도 있다. McKay는 웃었다 그가 이것을 테스트하는 동안 주기적으로 나와 Nate가 9개의 알림을 받았다 아무때나 아무에게서 아무거나 했을때. 이것은 계속 징징거리는 것을 볼 수 있었다.

회사들은 희망하고 있는 중이다. 이 중복되는 alert들을 제한하는 방법을 창안하는 것을. 어떤사람들이 선호하는 인터페이스를 탐지하여 오직 한번 push를 하도록. push알림은 모바일 웹사이트를 도울수 있다 native app과 경쟁하면서. 모든 business나 서비스가 full-scale의 native app이 필요한 것은 아니다. 지금 그들은 재유입의 기회를 얻을 수 있다 모바일 웹이 재공하는 구조를 통해서

 함께 일하는 것을 통해서 구글과 페이스북팀들은 말햇다. 페이스북은  멋진 지원을 얻을 수 있었고 반면에 구글은 버그들과 issue들을 배울 수 있었다 오직 Facebook의 거대한 스케일에서만 일어나는. .






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Facebook Works With Google To Let Mobile Web Users Get Push Notifications Via Chrome


A big reason developers hate mobile websites is that they lack the push notifications which help re-engage people with native apps. That was a serious problem for Facebook. It sees a ton of users on its m.facebook.com site, especially in the developing world where data budgets are tight, but had trouble pulling them back in. So today Facebook announced that after working with Google on its new mobile web alerts standard, m.facebook.com mobile web users can now opt to receive push notifications via Chrome.

Google first announced the development of its third-party push API through Chrome back in April and noted some partners like eBay and Vice News who had committed to implementing the standard. Now Facebook has rolled out the feature,  so mobile Chrome users on m.facebook.com will be asked to turn on Chrome pushes. Facebook’s product manager on browser partnerships Jonathan McKay tells me that already, “We’ve seen an increase in visitation from launching push notifications.”

Push via Chrome is “a great lever for re-engagement to the site [from]…people who might not use Facebook as much”, McKay explains. “This is pushing the best content out to them so they don’t have to proactively go to the service.” That could mean telling them to come back if a friend got married or they’ve been tagged in a photo. Without these push alerts, mobile web users might have never realized there was something urgent to attend to on Facebook.

While social networking addicts who aren’t as concerned about data rates might prefer the high-performing native Facebook app, in emerging markets, the mobile site is very popular. It’s lean, doesn’t burn much data, and doesn’t require app updates.

Google hopes to see adoption of its mobile web push notifications standard by other browser makers too. “Now it’s shipped stably for both us and Opera, and it’s landing on Firefox 42 in November” says Owen Campbell-Moore, Google’s associate product manager on the feature. UC Browser from Chinese company UC Web is also supporting this to bring it to emerging markets.

One challenge is duplicate notifications. With the mobile site joining Facebook, Facebook Lite, Opera, and other ways to get pushes, users could be exposed to alerts they’ve already seen. Nate Schloss, a Facebook software engineer working on the integration says this could get annoying. McKay laughs that while he was testing it, “There was period of time me and Nate were getting 9 notifications anytime anyone did anything. It was like a minute of buzzing.”

The companies are hoping to devise ways to limit those duplicate alerts by detecting what someone’s preferred interface is and only pushing them there. Done right, push notifications could help the mobile web compete with native apps. Not every business or service needs a full-scale native app. Now they could get the re-engagement opportunities of native with the ease of construction that the mobile web provides.

By working together, the teams tell me Facebook was able to get assistance nailing the experience, while Google got to learn about bugs and issues that only appear at Facebook’s enormous scale. That was a big theme of today’s Facebook @Scale engineering conferencethat drew coders from across Silicon Valley to a day of these kinds of announcements. Tech giants don’t always have to compete.



Posted by 구레이더

Benedetta Berti: The surprising way groups like ISIS stay in power

 

0:11

For the past decade, I've been studying non-state armed groups: armed organizations like terrorists, insurgents or militias. I document what these groups do when they're not shooting. My goal is to better understand these violent actors and to study ways to encourage transition from violent engagement to nonviolent confrontation. I work in the field, in the policy world and in the library.

 

 

 

0:36

Understanding non-state armed groups is key to solving most ongoing conflict, because war has changed. It used to be a contest between states. No longer. It is now a conflict between states and non-state actors. For example, of the 216 peace agreements signed between 1975 and 2011, 196 of them were between a state and a non-state actor. So we need to understand these groups; we need to either engage them or defeat them in any conflict resolution process that has to be successful.

 

 

 

1:12

So how do we do that? We need to know what makes these organizations tick. We know a lot about how they fight, why they fight, but no one looks at what they're doing when they're not fighting. Yet, armed struggle and unarmed politics are related. It is all part of the same organization. We cannot understand these groups, let alone defeat them, if we don't have the full picture.

 

 

 

1:36

And armed groups today are complex organizations. Take the Lebanese Hezbollah, known for its violent confrontation against Israel. But since its creation in the early 1980s, Hezbollah has also set up a political party, a social-service network, and a military apparatus. Similarly, the Palestinian Hamas, known for its suicide attacks against Israel, also runs the Gaza Strip since 2007. So these groups do way more than just shoot. They multi-task. They set up complex communication machines -- radio stations, TV channels, Internet websites and social media strategies. And up here, you have the ISIS magazine, printed in English and published to recruit. Armed groups also invest in complex fund-raising -- not looting, but setting up profitable businesses; for example, construction companies. Now, these activities are keys. They allow these groups to increase their strength, increase their funds, to better recruit and to build their brand.

 

 

 

 

 

2:38

Armed groups also do something else: they build stronger bonds with the population by investing in social services. They build schools, they run hospitals, they set up vocational-training programs or micro-loan programs. Hezbollah offers all of these services and more. Armed groups also seek to win the population over by offering something that the state is not providing: safety and security. The initial rise of the Taliban in war-torn Afghanistan, or even the beginning of the ascent of ISIS, can be understood also by looking at these groups' efforts to provide security. Now, unfortunately, in these cases, the provision of security came at an unbearably high price for the population. But in general, providing social services fills a gap, a governance gap left by the government, and allows these groups to increase their strength and their power. For example, the 2006 electoral victory of the Palestinian Hamas cannot be understood without acknowledging the group's social work.

 

 

3:43

Now, this is a really complex picture, yet in the West, when we look at armed groups, we only think of the violent side. But that's not enough to understand these groups' strength, strategy or long-term vision. These groups are hybrid. They rise because they fill a gap left by the government, and they emerge to be both armed and political, engage in violent struggle and provide governance.

 

 

 

4:08

And the more these organizations are complex and sophisticated, the less we can think of them as the opposite of a state. Now, what do you call a group like Hezbollah? They run part of a territory, they administer all their functions, they pick up the garbage, they run the sewage system. Is this a state? Is it a rebel group? Or maybe something else, something different and new? And what about ISIS? The lines are blurred. We live in a world of states, non-states, and in-between, and the more states are weak, like in the Middle East today, the more non-state actors step in and fill that gap. This matters for governments, because to counter these groups, they will have to invest more in non-military tools. Filling that governance gap has to be at the center of any sustainable approach. This also matters very much for peacemaking and peacebuilding. If we better understand armed groups, we will better know what incentives to offer to encourage the transition from violence to nonviolence.

 

 

 

5:09

So in this new contest between states and non-states, military power can win some battles, but it will not give us peace nor stability. To achieve these objectives, what we need is a long-term investment in filling that security gap, in filling that governance gap that allowed these groups to thrive in the first place.

 

 

 

5:31

Thank you.



transition from violent engagement to nonviolent confrontation


armed groups today are complex organizations


a social-service network, and a military apparatus


you have the ISIS magazine, printed in English and published to recruit


They allow these groups to increase their strength


they build stronger bonds with the population by investing in social services


Armed groups also seek to win the population over by offering something that the state is not providing


non-state group : 비국가 단체

insurgent : 반란을 일으킨 사람

militias : 민병대

document : 기록하다

transition from A to B : A에서 B로 이행하다.

engagement : 약속, 업무, 교전

confrontation : 대치 대립

peace agreement : 평화 협정

defeat : 패배시키다

resolution : 결의안

conflict resolution : 갈등해소

tick : 싫은 녀석

struggle : 투쟁

politics : 정치

politic : 신중한, 현명한

apparatus : 기구 , 에퍼얼레레스

loot : 훔치다

governance : 통치, 관리

sophisticated : 세련된, 정교한, 복잡한

territory : 지역, 영토

sewage : 하수, 오물

sewage system : 하수처리장

rebel : 반역자

blurred : 흐릿한, 희미한

sustainable : 지속가능한

incentives : 장려책

thrive : 번창하다


TED 강의 : http://www.ted.com/talks/benedetta_berti_the_surprising_way_groups_like_isis_stay_in_power?language=en

Posted by 구레이더


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